Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Animal Kingdom : Chordates : Reptiles

 Animal Kingdom : Chordates : Reptiles:

Reptiles :

Reptiles were the first vertebrates able to live entirely on land. They evolved scaly, waterproof skins that prevent them losing vital body moisture in hot, dry climates. Most reptiles lay eggs that have a tough outer covering for the same reason. As a result, reptiles flourish in all land habitats apart from the very coldest parts of the world.

Unlike an amphibian, a reptile has a tough skin layer that stops moisture escaping from its body. This skin layer is protected by a flexible armor of rigid, often overlapping scales. Reptile eggs may have hard shells, like birds’ eggs, or tough but flexible shells. They must be kept warm or they will not hatch, so they are laid in warm places. In cool climates, some reptiles give birth to live young that do not need to be kept warm.

When fully developed, a baby reptile cuts or chips its way out of the egg, and emerges as a miniature version of the adult. Baby venomous snakes even have fully working fangs.

Although reptiles are described as cold-blooded, their bodies need to be warm to function properly. They rely on their environment to provide this warmth, so few reptiles live in regions with cold winters, and those that do are active only in summer. In tropical regions this is not a problem, and a reptile saves so much energy by not generating its own body heat that it can survive on far less food than a warm  blooded animal of similar size.

Reptiles include an amazing diversity of animals adapted for a wide variety of habitats, ranging from oceans to deserts, but they share a number of key features. All living reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates with tough, waterproof skins that allow them to survive in some of the driest places on Earth. Most reptiles lay eggs with leathery, waterproof shells, but a few give birth to live young.


There are four main orders of reptiles, but one of these contains just one surviving species the tuatara. The others are the aquatic turtles and land-living tortoises, the crocodiles and alligators, and a single order that consists of the lizards, snakes, and the burrowing, wormlike amphisbaenians.

01) Reptiles : Turtles and tortoises  :

These are the most recognizable reptiles, with their domed shells that are fused to the spine and ribs. Tortoises live on land, while turtles live in oceans and fresh waters. There are 340 species. Instantly recognizable by their domed shells, turtles and tortoises come in many shapes and sizes and occupy a variety of habitats. Most of the 341 species are aquatic turtles. The land-dwelling tortoises number only 58 species and all belong to a single family.

These reptiles have a long history, dating back more than 220 million years to a time when the first dinosaurs were evolving. Their bony armor has served them well ever since, especially in the water where its weight is no problem. On land, it is one reason why tortoises are so famously slow.


Chelonoidis nigra

Location: Galápagos Islands

Length: Up to 4 ft (1.2 m)

Diet: Leaves, cacti, berries, and lichens

Galápagos tortoises are the largest tortoises on Earth, capable of growing to a colossal size and an immense age. They once lived in their thousands on at least seven of the volcanic Galápagos islands off Ecuador, and owed their success to the remoteness of their island homes, where they had no predators or competitors for food.

Isolation of different tortoise populations on the islands led to the evolution of 15 local subspecies, each with its own distinctive features. Today, the Galápagos tortoise is at risk from various introduced species, including rats that prey on young tortoises and goats that compete for food. The number of subspecies has dwindled to 10, with several classified as endangered.

(Do you know, One Galápagos tortoise in captivity is thought to have lived to the amazing age of 170.)

When a baby Galápagos tortoise hatches from its egg it is no bigger than a mouse, but its shell already has the pattern of scutes (tough scales) that it will keep for life. As the tortoise grows, each scute grows too, adding a ring each year. But the oldest parts wear away over time, so counting the rings does not reveal the tortoise’s true age.

When a baby Galápagos tortoise hatches from its egg it is no bigger than a mouse, but its shell already has the pattern of scutes (tough scales) that it will keep for life. As the tortoise grows, each scute grows too, adding a ring each year. But the oldest parts wear away over time, so counting the rings does not reveal the tortoise’s true age.

02)Reptiles : Lizards :

With more than 6,000 species worldwide, lizards are the largest and most diverse group of reptiles. They come in all shapes and sizes, ranging from tiny chameleons (see pp.102–103) to giant monitor lizards the size of crocodiles.

A typical lizard has a scaly skin, four legs, and a long tail. Its legs extend sideways from its body, giving it a sprawling stance with its belly close to the ground. Some lizards have very short legs or even none at all. A few species even have a venomous bite.


Varanus komodoensis

Location: Indonesia

Length: Up to 101⁄4 ft (3.1 m)

Diet: Carrion and live animals

The biggest of the lizards, the mighty Komodo dragon is a fearsome predator, powerful enough to ambush, kill, and devour a fully-grown water buffalo. It will even kill and eat its own kind. The Komodo dragon lives on the island of Komodo and nearby islands and coasts near Java in southern Indonesia, where it preys on any animals it can catch.

An adult Komodo dragon can knock a deer down with one blow of its tail, then hold its victim with its long claws while using its saw edged teeth to kill the deer and then tear it apart. Rival males also use their strength to fight each other when competing for females or territory,  rearing up on their hind legs to wrestle until one manages to force the other to the ground.

(Do you know, An adult Komodo dragon may eat up to 80 percent of its own body weight in a single meal.)

The skin of a Komodo dragon is covered with scales that contain tiny bones called osteoderms. These form a tough but flexible armor, like the chain mail of linked steel rings worn by medieval soldiers. Similar armor defends other lizards against bigger predators, but in the case of Komodo dragons it protects them from each other.

The drooling saliva of a Komodo dragon is laced with venom produced by glands in the lower jaw. The venom mixes with the lizard’s saliva so it flows into the wounds inflicted by the bladelike teeth. It stops the victim’s blood from clotting, and may also trigger internal bleeding. So even if an animal manages to escape the initial attack, it soon collapses from blood loss and shock, making easy prey for the dragon following its trail.

03)Reptiles : Snakes :

Highly specialized for their predatory lifestyle, snakes are among the most efficient of all hunters. Their adaptations also make them some of the most dangerous animals on Earth. Snakes are dedicated killers. With very few exceptions they hunt live prey, kill it, and swallow it whole.

They have specialized senses for detecting their quarry, and they can move surprisingly quickly for animals with no legs. Their jaws and skulls are highly modified for swallowing animals bigger than their own heads, and some snakes are armed with deadly venom.


Crotalus atrox

Location: Mexico, southwest USA

Length: Up to 63⁄4 ft (2.1 m)

Diet: Small mammals

Equipped with huge venomous fangs and a sixth sense for detecting its prey in the dark, the western diamondback rattlesnake is one of the world’s most deadly predators. Rattlesnakes are venomous snakes with long fangs at the front of the mouth that fold back to allow the mouth to close.

The fangs inject a potent venom that destroys blood vessels and muscle, and which is powerful enough to kill a human adult. But the snake would rather save its venom for hunting, and uses its warning rattle to keep its enemies at bay.

(Do you know, This species is North America’s most dangerous rattlesnake, responsible for the most human deaths by snakebite.)

The scales on the rattlesnake’s skin have distinct central ridges, or keels. These may scatter light in a way that stops the scales flashing in the sunshine, helping the snake avoid being seen by prey and enemies. A rattlesnake is a pit viper, a type of viper with heat-sensitive organs called loreal pits, one on either side of its head. These pits detect the body heat of warm-blooded prey, allowing the snake to “see” in the dark. To a rattlesnake, a mouse almost glows in the dark, making it an unmissable target.

When the snake senses a possible victim, it glides closer to investigate, picks its moment, and strikes. Darting its head forward, it gapes its mouth wide open and stabs the animal with its fangs. The snake waits for the venom to take effect, then starts to swallow its prey whole, working it back into its throat with its very mobile, sharp toothed jaws.

04)Reptiles : Crocodilians :

Crocodiles, alligators, and their relatives number only 25 species, but they include the biggest and most formidable of the reptiles. All crocodilians are primarily aquatic, although a few may sometimes hunt on land.

The biggest, most powerful reptiles, crocodilians are superbly equipped for their aquatic way of life, and are notorious for their fearsome jaws and their ability to kill and eat almost anything. The crocodilians consist of three families the gharials, the alligators and caimans, and the crocodiles.

They are all dedicated meat-eaters with the same basic body shape, but their jaws vary in form depending on their diet. They propel themselves through the water with their long, muscular tails, and are able to stay concealed underwater without breathing for long periods as they wait to ambush prey.


Crocodylus niloticus

Location: Tropical Africa

Length: Up to 20 ft (6.1 m)

Diet: Fish, mammals, birds

This giant crocodile specializes in ambush tactics, lurking in pools and rivers visited by big animals. Bursting up from the water, it seizes its victim, drags it under, and waits for it to drown before tearing it apart.

(Do you know, Highly acidic juices in the stomach digest everything, including hair, bones, hooves, and horns.)

In Reptiles, crocodil have the most Powerful jaws can exert a colossal biting force for gripping and dismembering prey. The crocodile has up to 68 teeth. Some are much bigger than others and, as in all true crocodiles, many of the teeth are visible when the jaws are closed.

Each tooth is replaced by a new one as it wears out, so a crocodile always has a full set. Short legs are used for steering underwater. Armored scutes A crocodile’s back is armored with big, bony plates embedded in thick, oversized scales known as scutes. These protect it from bigger crocodiles, as well as the sharp hooves and horns of struggling prey.

That’s All about Reptiles.

Saturday, September 19, 2020

Animal Kingdom : Chordates : BIRDS

Animal Kingdom : Chordates : BIRDS

Types Of Birds :
06) Waterbirds, seabirds and shorebirds :
A huge variety of birds are specialized for feeding in or near water. Some hunt at sea, while many more feed on tidal shores or in freshwater wetlands.

Some of these birds have webbed feet and other adaptations for efficient swimming. Others have long legs, for wading in deep water. Many have bills that are modified for special feeding techniques.

Diomedea exulans
Location: Southern Ocean
Length: Up to 41/4 ft (1.3 m)
Diet: Small marine animals

In summer, the bleak, windswept islands around Antarctica become theaters for the spectacular courtship dances of wandering albatrosses, as they return to the islands to breed.

Equipped with the longest wings of any bird, this seabird is specialized for life in the air, soaring for days on end over the vast, icy Southern Ocean. It flies low, watching for small fish, squid, and shrimp like krill to snatch from the surface.

The albatross may land on the sea to gather food, but its long wings are not built for easy take-off, and getting airborne again is hard work.Albatrosses and their close relatives have distinctive tubular nostrils that enhance their sense of smell, helping them find food. The nostrils also detect air pressure as the bird flies, acting as air speed indicators.

(Do you know, Broad webbed feet allow the albatross to swim like a duck. It may even make shallow dives beneath the surface to seize particularly tempting prey.)

To fly long distances over the ocean, the albatross angles its outspread wings into the powerful wind to gain lift and height, then turns and glides downwind to cover distance. By repeating this, the bird can stay in the air for days.

Albatrosses usually pair for life, breeding every other year and cementing their bond with dancing displays. Strong legs and wide feet assist the albatross in landing and swimming. To help it fly, the albatross’s elbow joint can lock to keep its wings outspread. Each pair of albatrosses builds a nest of mud and vegetation on a ridge near the shore. After their single egg hatches the parents take turns to brood the chick for six weeks. Then they both leave to hunt at sea, returning to feed the chick only at rare intervals.
07) Owls Birds :

Owls are the nocturnal equivalents of hawks and eagles, and use their acute hearing and sensitive eyesight to hunt at night for small animals, such as mice. But some owls also hunt by day, and a few are specialized for catching fish.

An owl is immediately recognizable by its big, forward facing eyes, which look even bigger than they really are because they are surrounded by a disk of stiff feathers that channel sound to the owl’s ears. Most owls have large wings that allow them to fly slowly and silently as they search the ground for prey.

Bubo bubo
Location: Eurasia, North Africa
Length: Up to 291⁄2 in (75 cm)
Diet: Mainly small mammals

This magnificent bird is one of the largest of the owls and a powerful hunter with the strength to kill a young deer. Its huge eyes are highly efficient in dim light, enabling it to fly in near-darkness and even target prey by moonlight.

The eagle owl does most of its hunting at dawn and dusk, when its prey is most active. Like all owls, it has excellent hearing, but it relies on its sharp eyesight more than many other owls. It has a vast range, with more than 12 subspecies found across Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

Most owls take prey that they can swallow whole, in one gulp. The eagle owl does hunt like this, but it will also sometimes attack and kill larger animals. It then tears the flesh into bite-sized mouthfuls with its hooked bill, like a true eagle.

(Do you know, Eagle owl have Large eyes are up to three times more sensitive in the dark than human eye)

The owl’s eyes are not spherical, like ours, but conical and fixed in place in the skull. An owl cannot simply roll its eyes to look at something, as we can, it has to turn its whole head. Luckily, an owl’s flexible neck enables it to swivel its head up to 270°, which is three quarters of a full turn.

The owl’s flight feathers have special, comblike leading edges that muffle the noise of air rushing over its wings. This allows the owl to fly silently, so it can listen for prey, then take the animal by surprise. The legs and feet are covered with feathers for protection against sharp-toothed prey. Powerful, black-clawed talons grip and kill the owl’s prey. The long wings need only beat gently, reducing noise. Long, feathery tufts look like ears, but their purpose is not clear.
08) Toucans and woodpeckers Birds :

These closely related birds have found very different uses for their most striking feature—their bills. A woodpecker’s bill is a tool, but a toucan’s is largely for show. Although both are mainly forest birds, toucans are restricted to the tropical forests of Central and South America while woodpeckers live almost worldwide.

Toucans feed mainly on fruit, but they also catch small animals and steal the eggs and nestlings of other birds. Typical woodpeckers live up to their name by drilling into timber to find insect prey, and to excavate nest holes.

Ramphastos toco
Location: South America
Length: Up to 24 in (61 cm)
Diet: Fruit, eggs, and small animals

The toco toucan is the largest of all the toucans. The function of its distinctive bill is not clear, although its length is useful for plucking fruit, and its bright color may be used to impress other toucans. It is also used in courtship rituals, where a toucan will toss fruit to a potential mate to try and initiate a game of catch.

(Do you know, The wings of Toco Toucan are short and rounded, and only employed for brief flights from tree to tree.)

Despite its size, a toucan’s bill weighs very little because a tough sheath of keratin encloses an airy, foam-like structure of slender bony struts with a hollow space in the middle. A network of blood vessels beneath the sheath may act as a radiator, helping the bird lose excess heat.

Three of the toucan’s tail vertebrae are fused together, allowing it to snap its tail forward until it touches its head. It sleeps in this position. Gripping feet Feet are like those of a parrot, with two toes pointing forward and two backward.
09) Perching Birds :

More than half of the world’s bird species are passerines, or perching birds. They share an ability to perch on the most slender twigs, and include all the most musical songbirds.

These birds all have the same foot structure, with three toes pointing forward and one toe pointing back. This allows them to grip twigs and branches securely. Apart from their feet, they are very diverse, ranging from delicate nectar-feeders to powerful scavengers.

Sturnus vulgaris
Location: Europe, western Asia, introduced elsewhere
Length: Up to 83⁄4 in (22 cm)
Diet: Insects, worms, seeds, berries

One of the most widespread and adaptable of the perching birds, this noisy, very sociable starling has spread far beyond its native Eurasian range, partly through human introductions. Some birds are specialized for a particular way of life, but the Eurasian starling is an adaptable opportunist that can use its sharp, strong bill to find food almost anywhere.

It feeds mainly on open ground, foraging in groups that probe the earth for small animals, but it may also catch airborne insects in flight. In winter it gathers in vast flocks to roost for the night in trees, or on buildings. Starlings nest in any holes they can find in trees, rocky crevices, or in the roofs of buildings. Each pair lines their nest hole with dry grass, moss, feathers, and other soft materials to form a cushion for a clutch of pale blue eggs. Both parents incubate the eggs and feed the young when they hatch.

(Do you know, An estimated 150 million Eurasian starlings live in North America, all descended from just 60 birds released in New York in 1890.)

In winter, a starling’s dark plumage is peppered with buff spots. These are the pale tips of its feathers, which wear off by spring to reveal a breeding plumage of glossy black with an iridescent green and purple sheen. The birds then molt after the breeding season and return to their winter plumage.

Many perching birds have musical songs, but the starling is not one of them. Its song is a throaty medley of whistles, gurgles, clicks, and creaking noises, which often includes mimicry of other bird calls. Each bird has its own repertoire, and they can even be trained to mimic human sounds.

As the summer breeding season ends, starlings abandon their nests and start spending the night in mass communal roosts. Before settling down for the night these flocks perform spectacular maneuvers known as murmurations, which involve thousands of birds swooping through the sky in coordinated waves that resemble clouds of black smoke.

That’s all about Birds.

Thursday, September 10, 2020

Animal Kingdom : Chordates : BIRDS

Animal Kingdom : Chordates : BIRDS

Birds : 

Since the 1990s, the discovery of many miraculously preserved fossils, has proved beyond doubt that birds are feathered dinosaurs relatives of two-legged hunters such as Velociraptor.
Birds inherited their feathers from such animals, along with their warm blood and super-efficient lungs. These enabled the first primitive birds to take to the air more than 140 million years ago, and by 66 million years ago they had evolved into birds very like the ones that fly around us today.

There are well over 10,000 species of birds, belonging to 28 major groups, or orders. One order, the perching birds, accounts for more than half of the species other orders include distinctive birds such as owls, parrots, and birds of prey.

A bird’s lungs are relatively rigid structures with air tubes passing right through them. The tubes lead to many balloon-like air sacs that pump air through the lung tissue. The system is far more efficient than mammal lungs, absorbing the extra oxygen essential for powering the flight muscles.
Most birds build nests where they can lay their eggs, keep them warm until they hatch, and then care for their young. Nests range from scrapes on the ground to elaborate constructions woven from a variety of materials. Some are hidden in holes, while others are built in trees or on ledges.

Types of Birds :

01) Ratites Birds :

Ratite birds do have wings, they cannot fly because their wings have soft, fluffy, or hairlike feathers instead of stiff flight feathers. Their relatively weak wing muscles are attached to a flat breastbone instead of the deep keeled breastbone found in other birds.

They are thought to share a common ancestor with the tinamous group of ground dwelling birds that are able to fly, although only over short distances.


Struthio camelus

Location: Africa

Height: Up to 9 ft (2.8 m)

Diet: Small plants and animals

The huge, spectacular ostrich is the biggest of the ratites, a group of flightless birds that rely on their running speed to escape predators. Some are also notorious for their ferocity when cornered. The largest of all birds, the ostrich is specialized for roaming the open grassland and deserts of tropical Africa in search of scarce food.

(Do you know, An ostrich cannot chew, so it swallows stones to help its muscular gizzard grinds up its food.)

The black-and-white males mate with up to seven browner females, which all lay their eggs in one communal nest. The male helps to incubate the eggs. Ostrich feathers are fluffy and soft, and resemble the insulating down feathers of other birds.

They lack the rows of hooked barbules that zip together to form stiff vanes on flight feathers. Each foot has two toes, with a big hoof like nail on the large inner toe. Very long legs allow the ostrich to outrun most of its enemies.The ostrich has a good view of approaching danger thanks to the length of its neck

02) Penguins Birds :

Highly adapted for hunting underwater, penguins are the most specialized of ocean birds. Most live in the far south, in some of the coldest waters on Earth.

Penguins are built for swimming, with streamlined bodies, stiff flippers, and webbed feet at the very back of the body, a position ideal for underwater efficiency, But these adaptations make them awkward and vulnerable on land, so most species breed in colonies on remote shores where there are no land predators.


Aptenodytes forsteri

Location: Antarctica

Height: 4 ft (1.2 m)

Diet: Fish, squid, and krill

The emperor is a sleek hunter that dives under the Antarctic ice to catch fish and squid. Emperors breed on sea ice, the female laying a single egg then returning to open waters to feed. The male incubates the egg, waiting patiently for his mate to return before making the long journey across the ice to feed.

Emperors lay their eggs earlier than other penguins so that the chicks can develop all through spring and summer, before winter sets in again. Smaller penguins develop more quickly, so they can wait until after the spring thaw to breed and lay their eggs on rocky shores.

(Do you know, Emperor penguin downy feathers will be replaced after about three months by the chick’s juvenile plumage.)

An emperor penguin preys on a variety of small fish, squid, and shrimp like krill, using its swimming speed to pursue and catch each animal individually. Its tongue bristles with rear-facing barbs that stop the prey escaping before the penguin can swallow it.

The emperor has adapted to withstand extreme cold, with an extra-thick layer of insulating fat, or blubber, beneath the skin. Its feathers are short and stiff, and overlap to form a waterproof covering that keeps out the cold. To survive the bitter Antarctic winter, male emperors form tight huddles of up to 5,000 birds. They constantly shuffle around so that each penguin takes a turn on the colder, windy side of the huddle.

03) Game birds :

Many of these plump, ground-feeding birds have been hunted for food for centuries, which is why they are called gamebirds. But some, like the peafowl, also have spectacularly beautiful plumage.

Pheasants, partridges, turkeys, grouse, and their relatives are mainly forest or woodland birds that live on the ground and rarely fly. Many have a polygamous breeding system, with each extravagantly ornamented male courting as many females as possible.

In most species, females nest and raise their young alone, which is possible because the chicks can feed themselves almost as soon as they hatch.


Pavo cristatus

Location: India

Length: Up to 71⁄4 ft (2.2 m)

Diet: Seeds, fruit, insects

The peafowl is a type of pheasant that has the most dazzling of courtship displays. The vividly colored male, or peacock, woos the female by spreading a spectacular fan of iridescent feathers, dotted with big glowing “eyes.” If the female is sufficiently impressed she may allow him to mate.

(Do you know, Female peafowls have far less dramatic plumage, and a shorter train of feathers.)

The bird uses its strong feet to scratch in the soil for insects and seeds.The “tail” is actually made up of elongated feathers growing from the male’s back.Their enormous fan of plumes is a slight hindrance, but peacocks can fly well enough to reach a safe perch in a tree to spend the night.In their native forests this is vital to their survival. 

04) Hawks and Eagles Birds :

Birds of prey are the top predators of the bird world, powerful fliers with sharp claws and hooked bills that attack and eat other animals. Most of them are active hunters, but a few are adapted for scavenging carcasses of dead remains.

Ranging from sparrow-sized falcons to gigantic condors, birds of prey (also known as raptors) are some of the most spectacular and exciting of all birds. They include powerful eagles that can rip monkeys out of trees, fast-flying falcons that pursue and kill other birds in flight, super-agile forest hawks, specialized fish hunters, owl-like harriers, and soaring, scavenging vulture.


Aquila chrysaetos

Location: N. America, Europe, Asia, N. Africa

Length: Up to 351⁄2 in (90 cm)

Diet: Small mammals and carrion

This magnificent bird is the most widespread of the eagles, and one of the biggest. Soaring over open country on broad wings, it scans the ground below for prey to seize in its powerful talons. Eagles are the largest raptors birds that live by killing and eating smaller birds, mammals, and other vertebrates.

They catch and kill their prey with their clawed feet, and use their hooked bills to tear it apart. Some eagles specialize in catching fish, but the golden eagle usually hunts rabbits, hares, and big ground-feeding birds. It can soar for hours, circling on rising air currents with its wings held in a slight v-shape, before targeting prey and plunging into the attack.

(Do you know, A golden eagle pair will mate for life and return to the same next year after year.)

Golden eagles pair for life, and build nests on cliffs and trees. The female usually lays two eggs. The first to be laid hatches first, so one chick is older and usually stronger than the other. If food is short, the stronger chick kills the other one so it can eat its share, ensuring that at least one chick survives.

The eagle’s main weapons are its talons, big, powerful feet armed with very long, sharp claws. The eagle thrusts them forward as it slams into its prey, then squeezes them together in a lethal grip. The victim is often killed outright when the claws pierce its body and vital organs.

05) Parrots Birds :

Celebrated for their intelligence and ability to mimic human speech, parrots are colorful birds with powerful, hooked bills for cracking seeds and nuts. Most parrots live in tropical forests and grasslands, often in large flocks, but a few are now very rare.

Ranging from mouse-sized pygmy parrots to magnificent giants like the hyacinth macaw, parrots occur on all warm continents south of the equator, as well as Central America and southern Asia. Most are seed-eaters, but the lories and lorikeets are specialized for gathering nectar. Some parrots eat insects, and a few may even scavenge for carrion.


Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

Location: South America

Length: Up to 31/4 ft (1 m)

Diet: Nuts, seeds, fruit

The spectacular hyacinth macaw is the longest and largest of the parrots, though the flightless kakapo is heavier. It lives in the tropical lowland forests of Brazil and nearby regions, where it forages for food in small flocks, and breeds in tree holes.

(Do you know, The feet are very mobile, with two toes pointing forward, and two pointing bac)

The hyacinth macaw feeds mainly on palm nuts, cracking their tough shells with its stout bill and using its mobile tongue to extract the kernels. A parrot’s tongue is strong and very sensitive, so the bird can use it to explore its environment in the same way that we use our fingers.

For Other remaining Birds we continue in the next article.